Integrated oils have a game-changing opportunity in seeding new forests. They could potentially offset c15bn tons of CO2 per annum, enough to permit the continuation of 85Mbpd of oil and 400TCF annual gas consumption within a fully decarbonized energy system. The cost is competitive, at c$50/ton. It is natural to sell carbon credits alongside retailing fossil fuels. We calculate 15-25% uplifts in the value of a typical fuel retail business, while allaying fears over the energy transition. Our 21-page note outlines the opportunity.
The advatages of forestry projects are articulated on pages 2-5, explaining why fuel-retailers may be best placed to commercialise genuine carbon credits.
Current costs of carbon credits are assessed on pages 6-8, adjusting for the drawback that some of these carbon credits are not “real” CO2-offsets.
The economics of future forest projects to capture CO2 are laid out on 9-10. We find c10% unlevered IRRs at $50/ton CO2 costs.
What model should fuel-retailers use, to collect CO2 credits at the point of fuel-sale? We lay out three options on pages 11-14. Two uplift NPVs 15-25%. One could double or treble valuations, but requires more risk, and trust.
The ultimate scalability of forest projects is assessed on pages 15-19, calculating the total acreage, total CO2 absorption and total fossil fuels that can thus be preserved in the mix. Next-generation bioscience technologies provide upside.
A summary of different companies forest/retail initiatives so far is outlined on page 21.
E-scooters can transform urban mobility, eliminating 2Mbpd of oil demand by 2030, competing amidst the ascent of “electric vehicles” and re-shaping urban economies. These implications follow from e-scooters having 25-50x higher energy efficiencies, higher convenience and c50% lower costs than gasoline vehicles, over short 1-2 mile journeys. Our 12-page note explores the consequences.
Page 2 charts the meteoric ascent of e-scooters. In their first year of deployment, they matched the peak growth rate of taxi-apps (e.g., Uber) and overtook ride-sharing bicycles which have been under commercialisation for quarter-of-a-century.
Page 3 assesses the leading companies, all of which launched in late-2017 or early-2018, and have since raised $1.5bn.
Pages 4-5 compares the energy-economics of electric scooters with fourteen other vehicle concepts, explaining the physics of e-scooters’ 25-50x higher efficiencies.
Page 6 compares the relative benefits of e-scooters versus electric cars, which are clearest when comparing the relative strain on grid infrastructure.
Pages 7-8 show how e-scooters displace oil demand, outlining our projections for 2Mbpd of demand destruction globally by 2030. This oil demand is not “replaced” by electricity demand. c95-98% of it is simply eliminated.
Pages 9-11 model the per-mile costs of e-scooters, as a function of multiple input variables, showing the most competitive contexts relative to cars and taxis.
Page 12 ends by exploring potential consequences for urban economies. Most of all, we expect economic growth to be supported, particularly for retail; conversely e-mobility may embolden policymakers to ban gasoline vehicles from cities.