This data-file tabulates the “top ten” challenges for geological storage of CO2, based on reviewing the technical literature. Ten issues stand out, and are explained, with reference to numbers and data-points (chart above).
There is c$8-30/ton of tail-risk for a CO2 storage operation (depending on risk levels), which may need to be considered when appraising projects.
This matters as CCS must step up from 40MTpa capacity today to billions of tons per annum in a fully decarbonized energy system. CO2 disposal is also crucial to new CO2 technologies such as CO2-EOR, oxy-combustion, carbonate fuel cells, metal organic frameworks and direct air capture.
Measuring and monitoring CO2 is one of the largest challenges, hence our data-file also summarized 25 technologies used for this purpose.
Finally, we contrast CCS to Nature Based Solutions. For of the main challenge to nature based solutions also apply to CCS. Four risks also apply to each but not the other. This suggests a complementary balance of CCS and NBS will be needed.