This database covers all 14 subsea separation projectsacross the history of the oil industry, going back to the “dawn of subsea” in 1969.
For each example, we tabulate the asset, region, operator, water depth, process technology, Service company, start-up year, power rating, oil capacity, gas capacity, water capacity and some notes.
What is interesting about the data is how elusive the technology’s ascent has been. Two of our projects were cancelled. The largest were 2.3MW. Subsea Boosting and Compression has been 4x more prevalent (chart below).
This matters for the Mero pre-salt fieldwhere an unprecedented, giant, 6MW subsea-separation project is being pioneered, to handle high gas and CO2 cuts.
This data-file tracks the construction progress of 30 FPSOsthat are being deployed in the Brazilian pre-salt oil province. In each case, we quantify the vessel’s oil and gas handling capacity, development timing and recent news.
We also compare the FPSOs’ gas-handling capacity with regional pipeline capacity. There will only be room to monetize one-third of the pre-salt’s produced gas volumes by the mid-2020s. The rest must be re-injected (chart below).
This data-file tabulates market expectations for global decline rates, both their magnitude and their drivers, based on our ongoing survey, linked here.
Global decline rates are expected to average 5.2% in 2020-25, based on the results we have tabulated so far. However, the consensus is broad, with a standard deviation of 2%.
Future declines are expected to be lowerthan past decline rates, of 5.7%. Although the rise of shale is seen increasing global decline rates, this is apparently being outweighed by the rise of digital technologies and offshore innovations. Hence modestly more participants see 2020-25 oil markets as over-supplied than under-supplied.
Please feel free to disagree, and register your own views. We will then send you a discount code to download this data-file free of charge.
In 2019, the virtues of switching diesel-powered frac fleets to gas-powered electric have been extolled by companies such as EOG, Shell, Baker Hughes, Halliburton, Evolution and US Well Services.
The chief benefit is a material cost saving, quantified per well in this file, as a function of the frac fleet size, its upgrade costs, its fuel usage. diesel prices and gas prices.
Additional benefitsare also noted in the file, such as CO2 reductions, higher reliability, smaller pad sizes, NOX reductions and noise reductions. We also think over the long run, 200mmcfd of stranded Permian gas could be absorbed.
TOTALis currently pioneering the greatest advances in plastic-recycling technologies among the Majors, based on our database of 3,000 patents.
This data-filecovers the comprehensive mixing of chromium-catalysed polyethylene, to reduce defects and increase the strength of post-consumer resins. In turn, this extends their use to films, containers and pipes.
Four different measures of defectrates are correlated with four different extrusion methodologies.
The filealso includes a summary of TOTAL’s plastic recycling patents. Overall it should be possible to uplift plastic recycling margins by $50-100/ton.
Production optimisation can uplift mature fields’ output by 5-20%, varying production rates, chokes, pump-rates and EOR strategies, well-by-well across a field. It’s another way to stave off decline rates. But how?
This data-file summarises the methodologyemployed by BP, based on the most detailed patent we have seen on the topic, in our screen of 3,000 patents across the industry. BP is a leader in this area. Having digitised most of its operated assets, production optimisation comes next.
The typical challenge across the industry, is that as many as 20-30 changes may be required to optimise a large field, which is time-intensive for engineers to perform manually, hard-to-prioritise, hard-to-sequence and prone to errors that might defy operational constraints on individual wells.
BP’s system iteratesthrough potential changes, selects the most promising candidates, validates that they comply with operating constraints, and shifts production to an optimal state (chart above).
This data-fileincludes our summary of BP’s patent, schematics for its implementation, data behind our chart above and a ranking of BP’s “digital technology” versus other Majors that we have assessed.
This data-file compares diesel trains, electric trains and hydrogen trains, according to their energy consumption, carbon emissions and fuel costs. The data are presented apples-to-apples, per passenger mile, based on worked examples. Seven train routes are compared on 20 metrics overall.
Travelling by train should be 2-15x more fuel-efficient, and 3-20x less carbon intensive than travelling by car.
Electric trainsare most efficient and cost-effective. The drawback is that electrifying tracks can cost c$1.4M/km. Nevertheless, we are most positive on the electrification opportunity around railways, particularly using next-generation combustion technologies.
The world’s first hydrogen trainslaunched in Germany in September-2018. To be cost-competitive with entry-level diesel trains requires c$12/kg hydrogen, $6/gallon diesel and a $50/ton carbon price.
Relative costs and economicscan be compared by varying inputs in the file.
Advanced reservoir modelling can stave off production declinesat complex offshore assets. This data-file illustrates how, tabulating production estimates based on a technical paper published by Eni, an industry leader in applying high-speed computing power in its upstream operations.
Specifically, the paper simulates an offshore field-cluster in a single, Integrated Asset Model that covers 31 wells, drilled into 3 reservoirs (each is modelled in detail, with a total of 1.9M reservoir cells), 34 pipes, 4 oil platforms and 3 delivery points. Each iteration of this model takes an average of 3.5-hours to run.
Production can be uplifted by 60% according to the simulation, both in terms of EUR and in terms of year 5-7 production rate. 9pp of the uplift is achieved by simple reservoir optimisation. Another 21pp of uplift is achieved by identifying the key bottleneck, and building a new separation & boosting platform to alleviate it. A further 29pp of uplift comes from optimising the development plan for the new platform.
Emerging digital technologies appear to be keeping LT oil-markets better supplied than many expect, with production upside for the industry’s technology-leaders.