Ammonia synthesis: the economics?

This data-file captures the economics of producing ammonia from inputs of hydrogen and nitrogen, using the Haber process. This matters as fertilizer production thus explains over 1% of global emissions.

Our model derives a marginal cost of $450/ton ammonia, with a CO2 intensity of 2.4 tons per ton, in a new facility fueled by natural gas heat and power. Emissions from coal-fired facilities will be higher.

The best decarbonization option is nature based solutions, as the data-file stress-tests other CO2 abatement options, such as cleaner hydrogen production and greater share of renewables and batteries in the grid.