Energy costs of mining processes?

This data-file aims to quantify the typical energy intensities of open-pit mining processes, followed by milling operations to crush, grind and purify ores of interest.

The energy costs expand as ore grades contract, because more effort is expended mining, transporting and processing non-valuable by-products.

Generally, we think a 33% ore grade will likely require 100kWh of mining energy per ton of finished commodity, mostly consumed in the form of electricity, and emitting 50kg of CO2.

Each $100/ton increase in global CO2 abatement costs will therefore increase the cost of mined commodities by an average of around 3%.