This model calculates the costs per passenger-kilometer for transportation, based on mileage, load factors, fuel prices (oil and electricity), fuel-economy, vehicle costs and maintenance costs.
Ground level vehicles are assessed using data from around the industry, on gasoline, electric, owned and taxi vehicles.
Aerial vehicles could compete with taxis as early as 2025. By the 2030s, their costs can be 60% below the level of car ownership.
This model shows all of our input assumptions and calculations.