Nickel, manganese, cobalt: sufficient reserves for the rise of EVs?

This data-file models whether there will be enough nickel, manganese and cobalt, to build the batteries behind the vast rise of electric vehicles embedded in our oil demand forecasts.

Our conclusion is that the outlooks for nickel and manganese are unconcerning, due to strong recent reserve replacement ratios. But the need to ramp up, reduce and recycle cobalt will be a challenge.

You can stress-test the input assumptions in the model, varying the ultimate sales of electric vehicles, other demand growth, recycling rates and reserve replacement ratios.