Global average temperatures: are the data robust and reliable?

Global average surface temperatures have risen by 1.2-1.3C since pre-industrial times and continue rising at 0.02-0.03C per year, according to data-sets from NASA, NOAA, the UK Met Office and academic institutions. This note assesses their methodologies and controversies. Uncertainty in the data is likely much higher than admitted. But the strong upward warming trend is robust.


2020 is said to be the joint-hottest year on record, tied with 2016, which experienced a particularly sharp El Nino effect. 2020 temperatures were around 1.2C warmer than 1880-1900, on data reported by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and 1.3C warmer on data reported by the UK Met Office’s Hadley Center and East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (HadCRUT).

2020’s hot temperatures were partly influenced by COVID-19, as “global shutdowns related to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic reduced particulate air pollution in many areas, allowing more sunlight to reach the surface and producing a small but potentially significant warming effect”, per NASA. But the largest component of the warming is attributed to rising CO2 levels in the Earth’s atmosphere, which reached 414 ppm.

Overall, NASA’s data show temperatures have warmed by 0.02C per year over the past 50-years, 0.023C per year over the past 25-years and 0.03C per year over the past 10-years (chart above). Likewise, HadCRUT shows 0.02C per year over the past 50-years, 0.022C/year over the past 25-years and 0.024C/year over the past 10-years (below). Both data-sets suggest the rate of warming is accelerating.

How accurate are the data-sets? To answer this question, this note delves into global average surface temperature records (GASTs). It is not as simple as shoving a thermometer under the world’s armpit and waiting three minutes…

How are global average surface temperatures measures?

Surface air temperatures (SATs) are measured at weather stations. 32,000 weather stations are currently in operation and feed into various GAST indices.

Surface sea temperatures (SSTs) are measured at the surface of the sea as a proxy for immediately overlying air temperatures. Up until the 1930s, SSTs were most commonly taken by lowering a bucket overboard, and then measuring the temperature of the water in the bucket. This most likely under-estimated water temperatures in the past. From 1930-1990, SSTs were mostly measured from ships’ engine intakes. From 1990 onwards, SSTs were most commonly measured by specialized buoys and supplemented by satellite imagery.

Sea ice is particularly complicated. It takes 80% as much heat to melt 1kg of ice as it takes to boil 1kg of water, which means that the surface temperatures above sea ice can be higher than 0C. But it is difficult to access locations that are iced over with permanent weather stations. So temperatures over sea ice are often modelled not measured.

Data here: https://thundersaidenergy.com/downloads/refrigeration-and-phase-change-materials-energy-economics/

Temperatures are measured at each of these sites noted above. However GAST indices do not take raw temperature data as their inputs. First, absolute temperatures vary markedly between different weather stations that are scattered over short distances (e.g., due to shade, aspect, elevation, wind exposure), making the readings too site-specific. Moreover, the global average temperature is actually 3.6C higher in July-August than it is in December and January, because land masses experience greater seasonal temperature fluctuation than oceans, while two-thirds of the world’s land is in the Northern hemisphere, experiencing summer conditions in July-August. This would introduce too much noise into the data.

Temperature anomalies are the input to GAST indices. These are calculated by comparing average temperatures throughout each day with a baseline temperature for that site at that particular time of year. These anomalies are highly correlated, site-by-site, across hundreds of kilometers. By convention the 30-year average period from 1951-1980 is used as the baseline by NASA.

Averaging is used to aggregate the temperature anomaly data from different temperature stations across regions. Regional anomalies are then averaged into a global anomaly. Each region is weighted by its proportionate share of the Earth’s surface area. Thus a GAST index is derived.

Controversies: could there be systematic biases in the data?

Very large data-sets over very long timeframes are complicated beasts. They are prone to being revised and adjusted. Some commentators have worried that there could be systematic biases in the revisions and adjustments.

More data. As an example, NOAA digitized and added more observations from the early 20th century into its methodology in 2016. This caused prior data to be re-stated. But this reason seems fair and relatively uncontroversial.

New weather stations are slightly more controversial. How do you know what the baseline temperature would have been at a site in 1950-1980, if the first weather station was only added there in 2000? Some of the baselines must therefore be derived from models, rather than hard data. Some commentators have criticized that the models used to set these baselines themselves pre-suppose anthropogenic climate change, assuming past temperatures were cooler, thereby placing the cart before the horse. This fear may be counter-balanced by looking at weather stations with longer records. For example, of the 12,000 weather stations surveyed by NASA’s 2020 data, as many as 5,000 may have records going back beyond 1930.

Urban heat islands are somewhat more controversial again. Imagine a weather station situated in the countryside outside of a city. Over the past century, the city has grown. Now the weather station has been engulfed by the city. Cities will tend to be 1-3C warmer than rural lands, due to the urban heat island effect. So for the data to remain comparable, past data must be adjusted upwards. GISS notes that the largest change in its calculation methodology over time has been to adjust for urban heat islands. Although some commentators have questioned whether the adjustment process is at risk of not being extensive enough. This fear may be counter-balanced by the relatively small portion of weather stations experiencing this engulfing effect.

The adjustment of anomalous-looking data is most controversial. Algorithms are used to sift through millions of historical data-points and filter away outliers that run counter to expectations. The algorithms are opaque. One set of algorithms ‘homogenizes’ the data of stations showing divergent patterns to its neighbours, by replacing that station’s data with that of its neighbours. As the general trend has been for a warming climate, this means that some stations showing cooling could be at risk of getting homogenized out of the data-set, causing the overall data to overstate the degree of warming.

The data also do not correlate perfectly with rising CO2 levels: especially in 1880-1920, which appears to get cooler; and around the Second World War, which appears to produce a spike in temperatures then a normalization. On the other hand, no one is arguing that CO2 is the sole modulator of global temperature. El Nino, solar cycles and ‘weather’ also play a role. And despite the annual volatility, the recent and most accurate data from 1970+ rise in lockstep with CO2.

The most vehement critics of GAST indices have therefore argued that past temperature adjustments could be seen to contribute over half of the warming shown in the data. There is most distrust over the revisions to NASA’s early temperature records. One paper states “Each new version of GAST has nearly always exhibited a steeper warming linear trend over its entire history. And, it was nearly always accomplished by systematically removing the previously existing cyclical temperature pattern. This was true for all three entities providing GAST data measurement, NOAA, NASA and Hadley CRU”.

Uncertainties should not detract from the big picture

Our own impression from reviewing the evidence is that the controversies above should not be blown out of proportion. The Earth is most likely experiencing a 0.02-0.03C/year warming trend over the past 10-50-years.

Multiple independent bodies are constructing GAST indices in parallel, and all seem to show a similar warming trend. Pages could be written on the subtle differences in methodologies. For example, NOAA and the Berkeley Earth project use different, more complex methodologies than GISS, but produce similar end results. NOAA, for example, does not infer temperatures in polar regions that lack observations, and thus reports somewhat lower warming, of just 1.0C. This is because Arctic warming exceeds the global average, as minimum sea ice has declined by 13% each decade, allowing more sunlight to be absorbed and in turn, and causing more warming.

No doubt the construction of a global average temperature index, covering the whole planet back to 1880 is fraught with enormous data-challenges that could in principle be subject to uncertainties and biases. But it is nothing short of a conspiracy theory to suggest that multiple independent agencies are wilfully introducing those biases. And then lying about it. The Q&A section of NASA’s website states “Q: Does NASA/GISS skew the global temperature trends to better match climate models? A: No”.

You can also review all of the adjusted and unadjusted data for individual weather stations side-by-side, here. If we take the example below, in New York’s Central Park, the adjusted/homogenized and unadjusted data are not materially different, especially in recent years. Although the uncertainty is visibly higher for the 1880-1940 data.

Source: https://data.giss.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/gistemp/stdata_show_v4.cgi?id=USW00094728&dt=1&ds=14

Criticisms of the NASA data adjustments, cited in the skeptical technical paper above, do not appear particularly well founded either. It is true that NASA’s 1980s estimates of temperatures in 1920-1980 have been progressively lowered by 0.1-0.3C from 1981 to 2017, which could be seen to over-exaggerate the warming that has occurred since that time-period. However this is mostly because of bad data back in the pre-digital world of the 1980s. In fact, NASA’s 1981 data-set did not include any sea surface temperature data and only included data from 1,219 land stations, all in the Northern hemisphere.

Revisions in more recent data-sets are minimal. For example, HadCRUT’s data are shown below.

Another review of the data concludes that the net effect of revisions has been to under-state global temperature increases, by adjusting the temperatures in 1880-1930 upwards, which would under-state warming relative to this baseline (here). This is actually a blend of effects. Temperatures on land have generally been adjusted downwards by 0.1-0.2C in the 1880-1950 timeframe. Temperatures at sea have been adjusted upwards by 0.2-0.3C over 1880-1935. The original article also contains some helpful and transparent charts.

Finally, recent data are increasingly reliable. In total, 32,000 land stations and 1.2M sea surface observations are now taken every year, across multiple data-sets. Hence GISS estimates the uncertainty range in its global annual temperature data is +/- 0.05C, rising to 0.1-0.2C prior to 1960, at a 95% confidence level. From our review above, we think the uncertainty is likely higher than this. But the strong upwards trend is nevertheless robust.

Conclusions: 30-years to get to net zero?

Global temperatures are most likely rising at 0.023-0.03C per year, and 1.2-1.3C of warming has most likely occurred since pre-industrial times. This would suggest 30-years is an appropriate time-frame to get to Net Zero while limiting total warming to 2C, per our recent research note below.

A paradox in our research is that the $3trn per year economic cost of reaching net zero by 2050 seems to outweigh the $1.5trn per year economic cost of unmitigated climate change. One of the most popular solutions to this paradox, per the recent survey on our website below, was to consider re-optimizing and potentially softening climate targets. There may be economic justifications for this position. But the temperature data above show the result could be materially more warming.

Our own view is that the world should also decarbonize for moral reasons and as an insurance policy against tail-risks (arguments 3 and 6, above). And it should favor decarbonization pathways that are most economical and also restore nature (note below).

Our climate model, including all of the temperature data cited in this report are tabulated in the data-file below.

Copyright: Thunder Said Energy, 2022.

... or Sign In

Receive our best ideas, as we publish them?

We provide differentiated insights to the leading decision-makers in energy. Our work includes written research, downloadable data and models. The aim is to save you time and help your process. If this sounds useful, then please sign up below...

This text constitutes Thunder Said Energy’s terms, conditions, its privacy policy, its GDPR policy and other relevant contact details. By reading our written content, you agree to abide by these terms of use.

Terms of Use

1. Use of the Thunder Said Energy Website

These conditions are a legal agreement between you and Thunder Said Energy (“we” or “us”). They set out the basis on which you may make use of the Thunder Said Energy’s services, accessed through www.thundersaidenergy.com (the “site”), whether as a guest or a subscribing client.

Please read these conditions before you use the Site, as they will apply. You must not use the site if you do not agree to them.

We reserve the right to change these conditions at a later date.

2. Information about Thunder Said Energy

Thunder Said Energy LLC is a registered company in Connecticut, United States, effective April-2019.

3. Accuracy of Content

The information on the site (our “content”) is for general information purposes. It is not intended to address your particular requirements.

We have no liability for any loss or damage arising from using our content.

Our content shall not be construed as investment advice on the merits of buying, selling, subscribing to, or underwriting any shares, securities of other financial investments. You do any of the above entirely at your own risk: Thunder Said Energy shall have no liability whatsoever for any adverse consequences thereof.

We strive for, but do not guarantee, the accuracy of our content. We do not represent that it is error-free, will be corrected or that your use will provide specific results. If you believe anything is inaccurate, please let us know via email, so we may update it as appropriate.

The future is uncertain. There can be no assurance that our opinions, forecasts or estimates will be realized.

You hereby acknowledge that the risk to the accuracy and completeness of our content, and any reliance upon it, is with you.

4. Limitation of Liability

Thunder Said Energy will not be liable for any loss of profits, business, contracts, revenue, goodwill or anticipated savings or other indirect losses

Nothing in these terms seeks to exclude or limit any liability that cannot be excluded or limited by US, UK or European law.

5. Intellectual Property Rights

Our content, including any information, imagery or materials created by us are owned by and are confidential to Thunder Said Energy and are protected by copyright.

Any citation of our content, including short passages of text is to be attributed to Thunder Said Energy, plus a link to our website www.thundersaidenergy.com. We would appreciate it if you sought our prior approval for citing our content.

Distributing, reproducing, transmitting or re-selling our content in any medium, whole or in part, is prohibited without prior permission of Thunder Said Energy. We reserve the right to prosecute against illegal copying or sharing of our content.

You may not alter, obscure or remove any trade marks from our content.

6. Links

Other websites and resources are linked on our site with the aim of helping our users

All are independent from Thunder Said Energy, with the exception of Redburn, which is a collaborating partner of Thunder Said Energy.

Thunder Said Energy does not accept any responsibility for the content or the use of linked websites and resources; or of the content of other sites that link to ours.

Use of any links is made at your own risk. You must take your own precautions to ensure any selected link or download is free from any viruses or other unpleasantness.

You must not link to our website from any site that is indecent, inappropriate or unlawful.

7. Accessing Our Content

You may be provided with a username and password to access our content. You are responsible for keeping them confidential

You may not share the username and password with, or transfer them to any third party.

You must notify Thunder Said Energy immediately if you become aware of any unauthorised use of your user name and password, or any other breach of security.

If your access to our content occurs through a corporate account, your rights to access our content may cease if your employment terminates at that company, which will be at the discretion of Thunder Said Energy.

You and your company are responsible for notifying Thunder Said Energy of any termination of employment, and any unauthorised use of our content after your employment ceases.

8. Viruses

Thunder Said Energy does not guarantee that its site will be secure or free from bugs or viruses. You are responsible for configuring your own virus protection software.

You must not misuse the site by knowingly seeking to introduce viruses, trojans, worms, logic bombs or other material which is malicious or technologically harmful.

You must not attempt to gain unauthorised access to the Site, its server, or any computer or database connected to the Site.

In the event of breaching these conditions, Thunder Said Energy will cooperate with relevant law enforcement authorities, may disclose your identity to them, and your right to use the site will cease.

9. Privacy and Cookies

Thunder Said Energy’s policy on data protection, privacy and cookies is set out in our privacy notice and cookie policy. You are encouraged to read both of these.

10. Governing Law and Jurisdiction

These terms of use and their formation are governed by US, UK and European law.

Thunder Said Energy may pursue injunctive relief or similar to enforce the provisions of these terms of use in any appropriate forum.

11. General

Any formal legal notices to Thunder Said Energy must be sent to [email protected]

Failure by Thunder Said Energy to enforce a right does not result in a waiver of such right.

If any provision in these terms of use is deemed invalid or unenforceable, the rest of these terms will remain in full force and effect.

These terms of use, privacy notice and cookie policy, constitute the entire agreement between you and Thunder Said Energy relating to your use of the Site, and supersede all other or previous agreements.

Thunder Said Energy may amend these terms at any time by posting such changes on this page of the site.

12. Further Information

Further information on these terms or any queries may be made by contacting Thunder Said Energy via the postal address, email address or phone numbers below.

Privacy Policy

Thunder Said Energy (“we”, “us”) respects your preferences on the collection and use of your personal information. The following statements explain our policies.

We are committed to protecting your privacy, while using our websites, products and services (our “platform”).

You should review this Privacy Policy periodically to keep up to date on our most current policies; as we reserve the right, at any time, to modify this Privacy Policy.

Any changes will be posted in this Privacy Policy. Any material changes may also be notified, e.g., via email.

1. Scope

This Policy applies to our platform. It provides you with guidance on your rights and obligations pertaining to your personal information.

2. Collection of Personal Information

Our general philosophy and ambition is to safeguard your personal data by minimising what we collect, and storing what we do collect in a secure manner.

Thunder Said Energy is the data controller for personal data we collect through our platform.

Thunder Said Energy will collect personal information that is necessary for our business: to improve the usability of our platform and help us tailor content for you.

Specifically, when you register with Thunder Said Energy, we will collect your name, email address, location, subscription preferences and preferred method of contact. We may collect additional information.

Collecting personal information will be self-apparent or will be disclosed to you at the time of collection: most often, when you enter it into an online submission form, when you request a trial or when you subscribe to our platform.

Thunder Said Energy will use this information for the purposes for which it was collected.

Thunder Said Energy does not share any personal data with any third parties, potentially with the exception of Redburn (see below).

Rob West, the principal research analyst at Thunder Said Energy, is bound by a non-compete agreement with Redburn, until December-2019, originating from Rob’s employment at Redburn, which ended in March-2019. As part of Redburn’s collaboration with Thunder Said Energy, it was agreed to release Rob from certain provisions of the non-compete. Specifically, pre-existing clients of Redburn will not be blocked from accessing Thunder Said Energy’s content. However, Redburn reserves the right to ask Thunder Said Energy for the names of firms who have accessed specific content and research products, in order to ensure compliance with this non-compete agreement.

Our platform uses several ‘plug ins’ and ‘cookies’ which are described in more detail below, including Google Analytics.

3. Purpose of Personal Information

We may use your personal information for operational, legal, administrative, and other legitimate purposes permitted by applicable laws. This may include:

Providing you with requested emails, products and services.
Providing you with information regarding our company.
Monitoring your use of our platform.
Providing customized information to you.
Confirming or invoicing purchases of our products.
For information verification purposes.
4. Access Rights and Ensuring Accuracy

We endeavour to ensure personal information is reliable, accurate, and up-to-date.

You may access your personal information, to update, and correct inaccuracies by email request (as long as your account is active).

You may limit the use and disclosure of your information by unsubscribing from marketing communications or contacting us at [email protected]

Some information may remain in our records even after you request deletion of your information, for example, if required by relevant legal authorities.

There may be limits to the amount of information we can practically provide about personal information that we store, due to cost, or others’ privacy rights.

5. Sharing Personal Information

We do not expect to work with any service providers that will handle our clients’ personal data. If we did work with any such service providers in the future, we would require them to treat personal information as confidential, and not for their own marketing purposes.

There could be instances when we disclose your personal information without providing you with a choice, in order to comply with the law or in response to a court order, government request, or other legal process; to protect the interests, rights or safety of Thunder Said Energy or others; or respond to adverse third parties in the context of litigation. But we consider this unlikely.

Should Thunder Said Energy establish future subsidiaries or affiliate companies in the future, controlled by the management of Thunder Said Energy, then we may disclose personal information “internally” to these subsidiaries or affiliate companies.

Generally, we will not transfer personal data to third parties of affiliates where Thunder Said Energy’s management team does not control it.

If Thunder Said Energy sells all or part of its business, or is involved in a merger, you agree that we may transfer your personal information as part of that transaction.

If you provide comments on Thunder Said Energy on a social media or other public platform, you should be aware that the information provided there will be broadly available to others to see, and could be used to contact you. We are not responsible for any information you choose to submit on these forums or their consequences.

6. Security of Personal Information

We take reasonable and appropriate steps to ensure the security of your personal information. Physical, administrative, and technical safeguards are in place to help protect personal information.

7. Retention of Personal Information

We will retain your personal information as needed to fulfill the purposes for which it was collected, and to comply with our business requirements.

Typically, we will retain your name and contact details for the duration of our relationship with you, as a client or prospective client of Thunder Said Energy. Any data collected for analytics purposes is retained for a shorter time, while we are carrying out the relevant analytics.

8. Cookies

A cookie is a text file, created when your browser visits a particular website. Every time you visit our website, your browser queries for and retrieves any cookies that have previously been set. Cookies should enhance the user’s website experience, including authentication, storing your preference and personalizing the website’s appearance.

The cookies Thunder Said Energy collects may include the following: a unique identifier, user preferences, and profile information used to personalize the content shown.

As far as Thunder Said Energy is aware, all cookies used on its website are industry-standard, such as those used by Google Analytics; and we have not knowingly added any specific cookies of our own.

We may collect the physical location of your device, with your consent, for purposes consistent with this Privacy Policy.

Some web browsers permit you to broadcast a preference that you not be “tracked” online. We do not actively modify your experience based upon such a signal.

We do not participate in interest based advertising.

9. Cross Border Transfer of Personal Information

Thunder Said Energy aims to minimise the the cross-border transfer of personal information. However, our company is based in the United States of America (USA). Thus, if you are not based in the USA, and you enter personal information into our website, then you agree for the information to be transferred into the USA.

By using our website, or providing any personal information to us, you consent to the transfer, processing, and storage or such information outside of your country of residence.

10. Prospective Employees and Employee Information

If you submit an application for employment to Thunder Said Energy, we may collect and store any relevant information you disclose to us in your application.

Information on employees or prospective employees (“Employee Information”) will be used for legitimate business purposes, to evaluate applications, manage the employee-employer relationship and comply with applicable laws and regulations.

We may disclose your Employee Information if required or permitted to do so by law (such as when part of a governmental agency action or litigation), governmental or quasi-governmental requests, or a regulatory organization, or to relevant third parties such as site technicians, auditors, lawyers, or professional advisors.

We will not intentionally communicate or make available to the general public in any manner, employees’ sensitive details, such as social security numbers.

We may share Employee Information with third parties who provide outsourced human resource functions. Those third parties will be required to protect Employee Information.

11. EU General Data Protection Regulation

The Thunder Said Energy Policy for the Processing of Data Governed by GDPR addresses our commitment to the processing of personal data under the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679.

If you are located in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) or Switzerland, you have the rights to request the following:

To request confirmation of whether we process personal data relating to you
To request confirmation of what personal data we process relating to you
To request that we rectify or update any personal data relating to you that is inaccurate, incomplete or outdated.
To request that we erase your personal data ,or that we no longer have your consent to process your personal data
To request that we restrict the use of your personal data
You may contact us at [email protected] to exercise any of these rights described above. You also have the right to lodge a complaint with your country’s data protection supervisory authority.

12. Other Contractual Relationships

If you enter into a separate contractual relationship us, which requires collecting, using, or sharing information about you in a different manner than described in this Privacy Policy, the terms of that agreement will apply.

13. Other Websites

This Privacy Policy does not apply to sites or services offered by other companies or third parties, that may be displayed as content or linked on our website.

14. Contact Information

If you have any questions or concerns related to this Privacy Policy, please contact the us at [email protected]

Updated 2nd April, 2019.

Thunder Said Energy Policy for the Processing of Data Governed by GDPR

Thunder Said Energy may collect, process or handle Personal Data relating to its customers or prospective customers (“customers”) in the European Economic Area (“Personal Data”).

Thunder Said Energy’s relationship with its customers is governed by our terms of use (above), privacy policy (above), and potentially other commercial agreements. It is also legally bound under the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (“GDPR”) in its collection, uses, and processes around Personal Data.

This Policy describes Thunder Said Energy’s commitment to the processing of Personal Data under the GDPR.

Please contact [email protected] if you would like an executed version of this Policy, or for answers to any GDPR queries arising from thie policy.

1. Appropriate Technical and Organizational Measures. When Thunder Said Energy processes Personal Data on behalf of a customer, appropriate technical and organizational measures satisfy the requirements of GDPR, to ensure the security of Personal Data is appropriate to the level of risk, and to help ensure protection of the rights of the data subject.

2. Subprocessing. Thunder Said Energy does not currently work with any subprocessors. If we were to do so in the future, subprocessors would be required to provide at least the same level of protection as is described in this Policy. Thunder Said Energy would remain liable to its customers for any actions by its subprocessors that impact any rights guaranteed under the GDPR.

3. Written Instructions. Thunder Said Energy only processes Personal Data in accordance with the terms set out in this Policy, its Privacy Policy (above) and other written terms agreed with its subscribing customer. These documents set out the subject-matter, duration, nature, purpose, types of Personal Data, categories, obligations and rights relating to such Personal Data.

4. Transfers to non-EEA Countries. Most of the Personal Data collected by Thunder Said Energy will be collected via its US-website. Where Personal Data are disclosd Thunder Said employees in the EEA, they may be transferred to Thunder Said Energy’s office in Connecticut, United States. Every effort will be made to ensure the transfer is fully secure. Personal data is not expected to be transmitted to other destinations, beyond the United States and EEA.

5. Confidentiality. Thunder Said Energy requires that its employees process Personal Data under appropriate obligations of confidentiality.

6. Cooperation Concerning Data Subjects. Thunder Said Energy cooperates with reasonable requests of its customers (at the customer’s reasonable expense) to help them fulfill their obligations under GDPR to respond to requests by data subjects to access, modify, rectify, or remove their Personal Data.

7. Cooperation Concerning Customer Documentation. Thunder Said Energy cooperates with the reasonable requests of its customers to provide information necessary to demonstrate compliance with this Policy and the GDPR, or to conduct audits of the Personal Data it holds that was received from the customer. Audits may only occur once per calendar year, and during normal business hours. Audits will only occur after reasonable notice (not less than 30 business days). Audits will be conducted by customer or an appropriate independent auditor appointed (not by a competitor). Audits may not have any adverse impact on Thunder Said Energy’s normal business operations. Auditors shall not have access to any proprietary or third party information or data. Any records, data or information accessed by the Company and/or its representatives in the performance of any such audit will be deemed to be the confidential information of Thunder Said Energy, as applicable, and may be used for no other reason than to assess compliance with the terms of this Policy. Thunder Said Energy shall be entitled to charge the Customer USD500 per hour for any hours of its employees’ time that is taken up in the audit.

8. Personal Data Breach. In the event of a Personal Data breach under GDPR, Thunder Said Energy will notify its applicable customers without undue delay after becoming aware of the breach. Such notification(s) may be delivered to an email address provided by Customer or by direct communication (for example, by phone call or in-person). The customer is responsible for ensuring any email address provided by them is current and valid. Thunder Said Energy will take reasonable steps to provide information reasonably required.

9. Deletion of Data. Thunder Said Energy will delete or return all Personal Data to a customer, following the termination of the customer’s relationship, unless it is required to retain it by applicable laws and compliance policies. Thunder Said Energy reserves the right to charge a reasonable fee to comply with any customer’s request to return Personal Data.

10. Governing Law. This Policy shall be governed by the governing law (and subject to the jurisdiction(s)) of the relevant Agreement and otherwise subject to the limitations and remedies expressly set out in the Agreement.
If you have any queries about this Policy please contact [email protected]
=