Energy Technologies and Energy Transition

Below is an overview of our written research into energy technologies and the energy transition, to help you navigate our work, by topic. The summary below captures 1,000 pages of output, across 50 research notes and 40 online articles since April-2019.

Energy Transition Technologies

The most economic route to ‘net zero’ is to ramp renewables to 20% of the total energy mix, treble demand for natural gas, pursue industrial efficiency gains, make fossil fuels the most efficient and lowest carbon possible, and then capture or offset the remaining CO2. Total investment of $70trn is required and CO2 prices do not need to surpass $75/ton.

Investing for an Energy Transition (Oct-19, 18-pages)

Energy Transition Technologies: the pace of progress? (July-2020, 3-pages)

What Oil Price is best for an energy transition? (April-2020, 15-pages)

TRLs: When does technology get exciting? (May-2019, online)

Nature Based Solutions to Climate Change

Nature based solutions include reforestation, restoring soil carbon and biomass burial. These are the largest and lowest cost options in the energy transition. They will ramp up vastly in the 2020s, creating new opportunities for for every sector to sell carbon-neutral products while earning elevated returns.

Nature based solutions to climate change: a summary (July-2020, online)

Reforestation: Can carbon-neutral fuels re-shape the oil industry? (May-2020, 26-pages)

Decarbonize Gas: how to make a gas value chain CO2 neutral? (Mar-2020, 15-pages)

Conservation agriculture: farming carbon into soils? (May-2020, 17-pages)

Biomass burial: better to bury biofuels than the burn them? (May-2020, 12-pages)

Green deserts: a final frontier for forest carbon? (July-2020, 18-pages)

Oil and Gas Markets

Oil and gas remain crucial in our decarbonized energy models. Our long-term outlook sees sharp demand growth for natural gas, while oil could also rebound rapidly after the COVID crisis. Hence we bridge to record under-supply in both commodities in the mid-2020s.

Oil Markets: the next up-cycle? (July-2020, 4-pages)

On the road: long-run oil markets after COVID-19? (May-2020, 17-pages)

LNG: deep disruptions and a 100MTpa shortfall? (Apr-2020, 6-pages)

2050 oil markets: opportunities in peak demand? (Sep-19, 20-pages)

The ascent of global LNG demand? (Sep-2019, online)

Drone Attacks on Energy Assets? (Sep-2019, online)

Natural Gas

Gas demand could treble between now and 2050, in order to achieve an economic energy transition. This requires minimizing methane leaks and unlocking decarbonized gas technologies, which are among the top opportunities in our gas research.

Decarbonize Heat: a cost comparison of 20 technologies? (May-2020, 20-pages)

Mitigating methane leaks in global gas: catch methane if you can? (Dec-2019, 23-pages)

DeCarbonizing Carbon: Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion (July-2020, 19-pages)

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells: what if carbon capture generated electricity? (Feb-2020, 27-pages)

LNG in transport: scaling up by scaling down? (May-2019, 20-pages)

Do methane leaks detract from natural gas? (Mar-2020, online)

Reliable remote power to mitigate methane? (Apr-2020, online)

Satellites: the spy who loved methane? (Dec-2019, online)

Shell drives LNG in transport? (July-2019, online)

Wind and Solar

The optimal share of renewables in a decarbonized energy system is 20-40%, but not higher. The opportunities that excite us most are next-generation wind and solar.

Decarbonized power: how much wind and solar fit the optimal grid? (Feb-2020, 24-pages)

Solar energy: is 50% efficiency now attainable? (July-20, online)

Two Majors’ Secret Race for the Future of Offshore Wind? (Apr-2019, online)

Offshore Wind: Tracking Turbines with Satellites and Machine Learning? (Jan-2020, online)

Perovskites: Lord of Light? (June-2019, online)

Energy Storage & Hydrogen

We are cautious on energy storage, due to the economics. Lithium ion batteries may be disrupted, while technical and economic challenges are under-appreciated. We are also cautious on the role of hydrogen in the energy transition due to low round-trip energy efficiencies, high costs and complex storage.

Decarbonized power: how much wind and solar fit the optimal grid? (Feb-2020, 24-pages)

Green Hydrogen Economy: Holy Roman Empire (July-2020, 16-pages)

Energy storage: will supercapacitors disrupt batteries? (June-2020, 20-pages)

Electric Vehicles Increase Fossil Fuel Demand? (Feb-2020, 13-pages)

Good batteries versus bad batteries: round trip? (June-2019, online)

Transportation & Vehicles

Electrification of vehicles goes far beyond the current trend of electric cars. Much more exciting are new, light vehicle concepts that would never have been possible using combustion-based power trains. They can be revolutionary. Heavy vehicles will remain fossil-fuelled with energy savings from hybridization.

Green hydrogen trucks: delivery costs? (Jul-2020, 18-pages)

Remote possibilities: working from home? (Mar-2020, 21-pages)

Electric Vehicles Increase Fossil Fuel Demand? (Feb-2020, 13-pages)

Drones & droids: deliver us from e-commerce (Oct-19, 20-pages)

Scooter Wars: are smaller electric vehicles better? (July-2019, 13-pages)

Aerial ascent: why flying cars will fly? (June-2019, 21-pages)

Could new airships displace trucks? (Feb-2020, online)

De-Carbonising Cars. Can Oxy-Combustion Save Gasoline? (July-2019, online)

Robot delivery: unbelievable fuel economy? (June-2019, online)

Industrial Efficiency & Digitization

Global carbon prices will be instated in the 2020s and re-shape the cost curve in every industry. Our research identifies technologies that will help to lower CO2 intensity and improve returns in the process.

Additive Manufacturing: 3D printing an energy transition? (June-2020, 21-pages)

Efficient frontiers: improvements from a CO2 price within oil and gas? (June-2020, 14-pages)

Digitization after the crisis: who benefits and how much? (Apr-2020, 22-pages)

More dangerous than coronavirus? The safety case for digital and remote operations (Apr-2020, online)

Internet versus Oil: CO2 contrast? (Nov-2019, online)

CO2-labelling for an energy transition? (Nov-2019, online)

Disrupting Agriculture: Energy Opportunities? (Sep-2019, online)

Digital Deflation: How Hard to Save $1/boe? (June-2019, online)

Oil Majors

Attaining ‘Net Zero’ is an opportunity for leading Oil Majors to uplift their valuations by c50% while driving the energy transition. It requires making the right portfolio shifts, reducing CO2 intensity, growing through advanced technologies and enhancing retail returns by CO2-offsetting their products.

Net zero Oil Majors: four cardinal virtues? (June-2020, 19-pages)

Net Zero Oil Majors: what cost? worth the cost? (July-2020, online)

Upstream technology leaders: weathering the downturn? (Apr-2020, 14-pages)

Portfolio Perspectives: what is the optimal Major’s allocation to renewables? (Nov-19, 7-pages)

Shell: innovating the future of LNG plants? (Jan-2020, 16-pages)

Patent Leaders in Energy (Sep-19, 34-pages, and a video)

Oil Companies Drive the Energy Transition? (June-2020, 17-pages)

Chevron: SuperMajor shale in the 2020s? (Feb-2020, 11-pages)

Does technology drive returns in a commodity sector? (Aug-2019, online)

The Shale Revolution

Shale productivity continues to improve at a phenomenal pace and will re-define the oil and gas industry, with potential to produce 25Mbpd of liquids from the bottom of the cost curve. The best-operated shales could be carbon neutral.

US Shale: the quick and the dead? (May-2020, 10-pages)

Shale growth: what if the Permian went CO2-neutral? (Dec-2019, 26-pages)

US Shale: No Country for Old Completion Designs (Aug-2019, 18-pages)

Shale: upgrade to fiber? (July-2019, 25-pages)

CO2-EOR in shale: the holy grail? (Aug-2019, online)

Enhanced Oil Recovery in Shales: container class? (May-2019, 16-pages)

US Shale: Winner Takes All? (Apr-2019, 13-pages)

An EOG digitization: pumped up? (Jan-2020, online)

EOG Completions: plugged in? (Apr-2019, online)

New Diverter Regimes for Dendritic Frac Geometries? (Nov-2019, online)

Pioneer: machine learning on Permian seismic? (Apr-2019, online)

Permian CO2-EOR: pushing the boundaries? (July-2019, online)

Offshore Oil & Gas

Offshore oil and gas will be forced to redefine itself to compete with shale. Again, the best projects can achieve CO2 neutrality, as well as higher NPVs per barrel than shale.

The future of offshore: fully subsea? (Mar-2020, 21-pages)

Johan Sverdrup: Don’t Decline? (July-2019, 15-pages)

Guyana: will low carbon credentials lower capital costs? (Oct-2019, 17-pages)

Mero Revolutions: countering CO2 in pre-salt Brazil? (Aug-2019, 16-pages)

Can technology revive offshore oil and gas? (May-2019, 18-pages)

New riser designs for pre-salt Brazil? (Aug-2019, online)

Downstream & Chemicals

The most exciting opportunities are next-generation catalysts and capturing further value in waste plastics.

Decarbonize downstream: a digital transformation in catalyst science? (Nov-2019, 25-pages)

Plastic Pyrolysis: Turn the Plastic Into Oil (Apr-2019, 16-page report)

Turn waste plastic into roads? (Apr-2020, 6-pages)

Carbon-negative plastics: a breakthrough (from TOTAL)? (June-2020, online)

Do refineries become bio-refineries in the energy transition? (Sep-2019, online)

Shale: restoring downstream balance? New opportunities in ethylene and diesel (June-2019, online)

IMO 2020. Fast Resolution or Slow Resolution? (May-2019, online)

CO2, Climate and Other

We practice what we preach and were a CO2 neutral business in 2019. Further observations on the energy transition debate follow below.

Thunder Said Energy: CO2 Neutral in 2019? (Jan-2020, 9-pages)

Climate science: staring into the sun? (Feb-2020, online)

Energy Transition: polarized perspectives? (Jan-2020, online)

The Most Powerful Force in the Universe? (Jan-2020, online)

Subscriptions to our research

In addition to the above, over 200 data-files are available to our subscription clients. This includes economic models, screens of technology leaders, patent screens and CO2 comparisons to identify the lower- and higher-carbon companies within different sub-sectors. For further details of our firm-wide subscription packages, please see here.

Copyright: Thunder Said Energy, 2019-2023.

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To request confirmation of whether we process personal data relating to you
To request confirmation of what personal data we process relating to you
To request that we rectify or update any personal data relating to you that is inaccurate, incomplete or outdated.
To request that we erase your personal data ,or that we no longer have your consent to process your personal data
To request that we restrict the use of your personal data
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14. Contact Information

If you have any questions or concerns related to this Privacy Policy, please contact the us at

Updated 24th January 2020.

Thunder Said Energy Policy for the Processing of Data Governed by GDPR

Thunder Said Energy may collect, process or handle Personal Data relating to its customers or prospective customers (“customers”) in the European Economic Area (“Personal Data”).

Thunder Said Energy’s relationship with its customers is governed by our terms of use (above), privacy policy (above), and potentially other commercial agreements. It is also legally bound under the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (“GDPR”) in its collection, uses, and processes around Personal Data.

This Policy describes Thunder Said Energy’s commitment to the processing of Personal Data under the GDPR.

Please contact if you would like an executed version of this Policy, or for answers to any GDPR queries arising from thie policy.

1. Appropriate Technical and Organizational Measures. When Thunder Said Energy processes Personal Data on behalf of a customer, appropriate technical and organizational measures satisfy the requirements of GDPR, to ensure the security of Personal Data is appropriate to the level of risk, and to help ensure protection of the rights of the data subject.

2. Subprocessing. Thunder Said Energy does not currently work with any subprocessors. If we were to do so in the future, subprocessors would be required to provide at least the same level of protection as is described in this Policy. Thunder Said Energy would remain liable to its customers for any actions by its subprocessors that impact any rights guaranteed under the GDPR.

3. Written Instructions. Thunder Said Energy only processes Personal Data in accordance with the terms set out in this Policy, its Privacy Policy (above) and other written terms agreed with its subscribing customer. These documents set out the subject-matter, duration, nature, purpose, types of Personal Data, categories, obligations and rights relating to such Personal Data.

4. Transfers to non-EEA Countries. Most of the Personal Data collected by Thunder Said Energy will be collected via its US-website. Where Personal Data are disclosd Thunder Said employees in the EEA, they may be transferred to Thunder Said Energy’s offices and employees. Every effort will be made to ensure the transfer is fully secure. Personal data is not expected to be transmitted to other destinations, beyond the United States, UK and EEA.

5. Confidentiality. Thunder Said Energy requires that its employees process Personal Data under appropriate obligations of confidentiality.

6. Cooperation Concerning Data Subjects. Thunder Said Energy cooperates with reasonable requests of its customers (at the customer’s reasonable expense) to help them fulfill their obligations under GDPR to respond to requests by data subjects to access, modify, rectify, or remove their Personal Data.

7. Cooperation Concerning Customer Documentation. Thunder Said Energy cooperates with the reasonable requests of its customers to provide information necessary to demonstrate compliance with this Policy and the GDPR, or to conduct audits of the Personal Data it holds that was received from the customer. Audits may only occur once per calendar year, and during normal business hours. Audits will only occur after reasonable notice (not less than 30 business days). Audits will be conducted by customer or an appropriate independent auditor appointed (not by a competitor). Audits may not have any adverse impact on Thunder Said Energy’s normal business operations. Auditors shall not have access to any proprietary or third party information or data. Any records, data or information accessed by the Company and/or its representatives in the performance of any such audit will be deemed to be the confidential information of Thunder Said Energy, as applicable, and may be used for no other reason than to assess compliance with the terms of this Policy. Thunder Said Energy shall be entitled to charge the Customer USD500 per hour for any hours of its employees’ time that is taken up in the audit.

8. Personal Data Breach. In the event of a Personal Data breach under GDPR, Thunder Said Energy will notify its applicable customers without undue delay after becoming aware of the breach. Such notification(s) may be delivered to an email address provided by Customer or by direct communication (for example, by phone call or in-person). The customer is responsible for ensuring any email address provided by them is current and valid. Thunder Said Energy will take reasonable steps to provide information reasonably required.

9. Deletion of Data. Thunder Said Energy will delete or return all Personal Data to a customer, following the termination of the customer’s relationship, unless it is required to retain it by applicable laws and compliance policies. Thunder Said Energy reserves the right to charge a reasonable fee to comply with any customer’s request to return Personal Data.

10. Governing Law. This Policy shall be governed by the governing law (and subject to the jurisdiction(s)) of the relevant Agreement and otherwise subject to the limitations and remedies expressly set out in the Agreement.
If you have any queries about this Policy please contact